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The following is an excerpt from Vero Shaw's Illustrated Book of the Dog written circa 1880.  
These passages include descriptions of the Manchester Terrier (termed the Black-and-Tan Terrier here)
and the now extinct White English Terrier.


CHAPTER XIII.

BLACK-AND-TAN TERRIERS.

HAVING disposed of the Bull-terrier, which is, as we have said, admittedly the result of a cross
between the Bull-dog and the English Terrier, we now come to the Terrier family pure and
simple. Whatever the Terrier may have been in days gone by, and whatever opinion may have
been entertained of his merits by our fathers, there can be no doubt that the number of his
friends in the present day are legion. The varieties of modern Terriers are so numerous, and
the size of the dogs so various, that a Terrier of some breed or other is seldom absent from a
country house. Large or small, smooth-coated or rough, useful or ornamental, as the case may
be, it would indeed be singular if the varieties of Terrier were not highly popular in this dog-
loving country.

The Black-and-tan Terrier must be ranked as one of our oldest varieties, for we find
mention of a dog resembling him in many particulars in the works of several earlier writers.
It is only reasonable to suppose, however, from the specimens whose portraits we occasionally
come across, that in days gone by less attention was paid to colour and markings than to their
utility as companion and vermin dogs. The formation of head, too, was very different to
what we find it in the present day, the skull being then much heavier-looking and shorter
than modern breeders affect ; but it must be remembered that, shows not having been established,
and many popular breeds of the present day not being in existence, all that was necessary to
breed for was a light dog, suitable for killing vermin and following his owner in his rambles.
One thing is certain, however, and that is, that in older Black -and-tans there was more of the
tan present in the coat, and it was far lighter in colour than it is now. The fancy markings,
too, such as pencilled toes, thumb-marks, and kissing-spots, to which reference will be made
later on, were conspicuous by their absence.

As regards the original uses to which the Terrier was placed, the name is in itself a
sufficient index. Even now-a-days there are very few that will not go to earth after a
fashion : it seems to come natural to them. Dr. Caius, in his book on dogs before alluded to,
includes the "Terrar" in his list of sporting dogs, for the obvious reason, apparently, that it
came under the category of dogs which " rouse the beast." The following are the worthy
Doctor's exact remarks on the breed " of the dog called a Terrar, in Latine, Terrarins."

" Another sort there is that hunteth the fox and the badger only, whom we call Terrars,
they (after the manner and custom of ferrets in searching for coneys) creep into the ground,
and by that means make afraid, nip and bite the fox and the badger in such sort that either
they tear them in pieces with their teeth being in the earth, or else hail and pull them perforce
out of their lurking angles, dark dungeons, and close caves, or, at least, through conceived fear,
drive them out of their hollow harbours, insomuch that they are compelled to prepare speedy
flight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge are otherwise taken and
entrapped with snares and nets laid on holes to the same purpose. But these be the least
in that kind called Sagax."



io8 THE BOOK OF THE DOG.

It would thus seem that a Terrier's work three hundred years ago was very much the
same as it is now, this class of dog acting as a bolter when animals went to ground on being
chased. It is very remarkable, however, that the attribute of pluck and endurance varies consider-
ably in the different varieties of Terrier pure and simple, the rough-coated ones being generally
decidedly gamer and hardier than their smooth-haired relations. Formerly there was but
little regard paid to colour and markings, and the general outline of the dog was less graceful
than it is in the present day. A fair idea of what the ancient Black-and-tan Terrier was
like may be gathered from the accompanying spirited woodcut, where the dogs appear not
only of a very indifferent colour but also far heavier and coarser as well ' as thicker in the
head than would now be tolerated.

Though one of the most beautiful breeds, the Black-and-tan Terrier is, nevertheless, one
of the most neglected at the present time. A reason for the lack of patronage bestowed upon
him by the general public is hard to discover, for his many good qualities are "so palpably in
excess of any shortcomings which may be alleged against him, that it is a matter of surprise
to numbers of his admirers that he should be neglected as he is by lovers of the dog. The
fact of his being so exceedingly difficult a dog to breed up to show form may have deterred
would-be exhibitors from attempting to gain celebrity as breeders under his auspices.

As a vermin dog the modern variety can only reach mediocrity, for though gifted with
sufficient pluck and endurance to enable him to hold his own with most breeds at ratting, he
ceases to be of any material service when badgers or foxes are introduced. We do not desire
to claim any virtues for a breed which we believe do not fairly belong to it, and, therefore,
greatly though we admire the Black-and-tan Terrier, and appreciate his good qualities, we
candidly confess, from experience, that as a rule he is inferior in sustained courage to most
breeds of Terrier. As a companion or house-dog he is unrivalled, for though invariably on the
alert indoors, and always ready to give tongue on the approach of a stranger by day or night,
his temper is such that he can be trusted to roam at large without the slightest fear of his
attempting to injure man or beast.

Owners of Black-and-tan Terriers experience great difficulty in keeping their coats in good
order and their skin free from scurf and dandriff. In highly-bred show specimens of the breed
this liability to skin disease seems to be more fully marked, and condition is very often the
cause of a good specimen going down in competition with dogs of inferior quality. We
believe heat of blood, the result of want of exercise accompanied with over-feeding, is responsible
for many such cases, and cannot do better than suggest periodical doses of the sulphur and
magnesia powder which is referred to on page 20. If an outward dressing is desirable, we
have invariably tried the following very simple remedy with complete success :

Two parts hogs' lard.
One part pine tar.
One part sulphur.

This mixture must be well stirred together, and then thoroughly rubbed into the dog's skin.
It has the effect of bringing off a great deal of hair, so that the dog is unable to appear at a show
for perhaps five or six weeks. Two or at the most three applications at an interval of four
or five days, accompanied by the administration of the sulphur and magnesia internally, has
never in our experience failed to produce a cure.

Amongst the few really successful breeders and judges of this variety the name of the
late Mr. Samuel Handley of Pendleton, Manchester, will always stand conspicuously first. To
this gentleman's judgment and perseverance we are undoubtedly indebted for most of the beautiful



POINTS OF THE BLACK-AND-TAN TERRIER. in

specimens of the breed to be seen at every great show. His celebrated Saff was almost invincible
in her day, and her blood runs in the veins of many present champions. It is probably due
to the great prestige attached to Mr. Handley's kennel that the absurd sobriquet of "Manchester
Terrier " has been applied to the breed, a compliment which he himself informed us, not long
before his death in 1878, he thought a very doubtful one, as he considered the name of Black-
and-tan quite honourable enough, while, as a matter of fact, Birmingham produced quite as many
good specimens as were bred in Cottonopolis.

Mr. J. H. Murchison and the Rev. J. W. Mellor have shown some excellent specimens, as
have Mr. Tom B. Swinburne of Darlington, the late Mr. J. Martin of Salford, and Mr. J.
H. Mather of Oldham ; but up to the summer of 1877, when he dispersed his kennel, Mr.
Henry Lacy of Hebden Bridge, Yorkshire, was recognised as the head of the exhibitors in this
variety. His Belcher, General, Ruby, Rara, and the toy Pepita, were each and all magnificent
specimens, and were usually shown in that pink of condition which is so essential to success
in the Black-and-tan. Mr. Howard Mapplebeck, of Knowle, near Birmingham, had also a
good bitch in Queen III., picked up by him at a low figure at Edinburgh show, 1877. Mr.
George Wilson, of Huddersfield, will always be remembered as a breeder, and so will the
names of Ribchester, Stellfox, Tatham, Roocroft, and Clarke.

One objection to showing in the Black-arid-tan classes is the manipulation to which
some unprincipled exhibitors subject their dogs in the shape of dyeing and staining various
portions of the body when the colouring is deficient. The places most usually operated
on are immediately behind the ears, and on the back and the thighs, where the hair should
be perfectly black, but where there frequently appear a number of tan hairs, which would
militate against the dog's success. In the case of the back of the thighs, when a dog is
" breeched," i.e., shows tan, the undesirable coloured and superfluous hair is sometimes re-
moved by plucking, but this should be always easy to detect if proper vigilance is exercised
by the would-be purchaser of the dog.

The points of the Black-and-tan Terrier are as follow :

Head. Long, flat, and narrow, level and wedge-shaped, with the cheek bones invisible, with
tapering, tightly-lipped jaws, and level teeth.

Nose. Black.

Eyes. Very small, sparkling, and intensely black, the oblong shape preferable.

Ears. Are invariably cropped for show purposes, and should, of course, stand perfectly
upright. Purchasers should, however, when examining a dog, satisfy themselves that the upright
carriage of the ears of the specimen before them has not been obtained by the application of
gum, so as to enable a dog, which usually carries one ear faultily, to carry it correctly whilst
being scrutinised by a possible buyer.

Neck. Slight, and free from throatiness, gradually increasing in size as it nears the shoulders,
which should be sloping, and display powers of speed.

Chest. Narrow, but deep.

Body. Short and rather ribbed up, with powerful loin.

Legs. Must be quite straight, set on well under the dog, and of fair length.

Feet. Long, with arched and black toes. Whilst upon this point, we may draw attention to
the fact that one authority in his work describes them as round. This is a most decided error,
and must have been an oversight, as there can be no two opinions on the subject.

Tail. Long, thin, and carried straight out.

Colour. Jet-black and deep red-tan, distributed over the body as follows : On the head the



1 1 2 THE BOOK OF THE DOG.

muzzle is tanned to the nose, which, with the nasal bone, is jet-black. There is also a bright spot
on each cheek and above each eye, the under jaw and throat are tanned, and the hair inside the ear
is of the same colour. The fore-legs tanned up to the knee, with black lines (pencil-marks) up
each toe, and a black mark (thumb-mark) above the foot. Inside the hind-legs, and under the tail
also tanned, and so is the vent, but only sufficiently to be easily covered by the tail. In all cases
the black should not run into the tan, or vice versa, but the division between the two colours should
be well defined, and a "warm" or deep tan is essential, a "clayey" (light tanned) coloured dog
being useless for exhibition purposes. The smallest spot of white is an absolute disqualification,
so particular notice must be taken to see that no dishonest staining has taken place. The chest
is by far the most likely place for it to appear.

Weight. From 7 to 20 Ibs.

General Appearance is of no little importance in this variety, as the dog should present the
appearance of speed and activity in preference to strength and endurance, which are qualities he
does not affect to any extent.

Mr. Tom B. Swinburne, of Darlington, has kindly given us his views as follows : " My ideas
of points of Black-and-tans are, first, that too much has been allowed for long heads. That is, though
I would like a good long head I would not let that sway other bad points, such as breeching, and
badly carried and thick tails, but would insist on having real Terrier points, such as good shape, legs
and feet, tail and body, which should stand on the legs, and not bowed at shoulders, whilst they
should be of good colour, a point much overlooked, especially in the smaller sizes. As to breeding,
of course I should go for good blood in the first place, and would not breed from very large speci-
mens, and would try to avoid breeding from dogs badly breeched, the most difficult thing to attain,
especially in getting good coloured ones, as a good rich-tanned dog, as a rule, carries a certain
amount of breeching. Too much care cannot be taken in rearing, and puppies are better sent into
the country to run, as no breed of dogs require so much attention to their coats, being so subject
to mange, and I hold that a dog well reared, and whose blood is kept healthy in his puppydom,
very seldom develops skin diseases afterwards."

The dog selected for illustration is Salford, late our own property, who was bred by Mr. Clark
in 1876. He is by Barlow's Duke out of Clark's Whiskey by Tiny, by Rochester's Colonel out
of Stellfox's Madam ; Duke out of Duchess by Tatham's Neptune out of Roocroft's Duchess
by Prince Charlie by Colonel. He has won first Alexandra Palace, 1877 ; first Wolverhampton,
1878; first and cup Belfast, 1879. H' s measurements are Nose to stop, 2\ inches; stop to
occiput, 4j inches; length of back, 14 inches; girth of muzzle, 7 inches ; girth of skull, \2\
inches; girth of brisket, 2oJ inches; girth of shoulders, 19 inches; girth at loins, 13 inches;
girth of forearm, 4| inches; girth of pastern, 3 inches; height at shoulders, 16 inches; height at
elbows, 8 inches ; hock to ground, 4^ inches ; weight, 19 Ibs.

SCALE OF POINTS FOR BLACK-AND-TANS.

Value.

Head (including jaws, nose, eyes, and ears) ... ... ... ... 10

Legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . 5

Feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5

Body 5

Colour and markings ... ... ... ... ... ... 15

General appearance (including Terrier quality) ... ... ... 10

Total ... ... ... 50



CHAPTER XIV.
WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS.

THE difference in appearance between the white English Terrier and the Black-and-tan is
very slight, but the obstacles in the way of a breeder's success in the two breeds are very different.
In the former variety colour and markings have to be studied to a great degree, whilst in the
white English Terrier the correct shape and action of a Terrier are very hard to obtain. It is naturally
easier to breed a pure white dog from white parents than it is to breed correctly-marked and
well-tanned puppies from almost perfect black-and-tans. The latter, however, breed much nearer
the correct Terrier shape than do white English Terriers, and this is on account of the Italian
Greyhound taint which runs in so many strains. One authority expresses an opinion that all
white English Terriers show 'traces of an admixture of Italian Greyhound blood, but we cannot
allow this to be the case, having both owned and seen specimens which do not show any
symptoms of the cross. So little encouragement is, however, shown to breeders in their efforts
to improve the variety, that the classes which appear at our shows are naturally meagre ; but
we are of opinion that if better known this Terrier would quickly rival the Black-and-tan in
the estimation of the public. The intense brilliancy of their jackets contrasts so beautifully
with surrounding objects, and their temperaments are so vivacious and affectionate, that they
deserve to be more fully known and appreciated ; and this, we trust, will some day be the
case.

Mr. White, of Clapham, first brought the breed into the qualified prominence it now enjoys,
as he was a large winner in these classes at the earlier shows. His dogs, however, would not
pass muster in the present day, as many leading Terrier points were conspicuous by their
absence, the Italian Greyhound apparently having been largely drawn upon in their production.
Midland-county breeders next turned their attention to the variety, and the late Mr. James
Hinks, of Worcester Street, Birmingham, showed and disposed of many first-class specimens.
The late Mr. James Martin, also of Salford, Manchester, was very successful with his Joe,
Gem, and Pink, but we always objected to them, the former especially, on account of the
Italian blood he showed. Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., the Rev. J. W. Mellor, and Mr. J. H.
Murchison, also showed some good ones years ago, as did Mr. Skidmore, of Nantwich, and Mr.
George Stables, of Manchester, the latter's Viper being a very first-rate specimen, though
possessed of a most savage temper. The latter dog not only did himself credit on the show
bench, but gained additional honour by begetting the famous bitch Sylph, who was in her
time the undoubted champion of this breed, and gained her breeder, Mr. Roocroft, many first
prizes.

It is to the enterprise and judgment of the latter that we are indebted for the improvement
of the white English Terrier, and the name of James Roocroft, of Bolton, occupies a similar
position in this breed to that of the late Mr. Samuel Handley in Black-and-tans. Mr. Roocroff
writes as follows concerning his earlier recollections of the breed in his neighbourhood :
15



1 14 THE BOOK OF THE DOG.

" The first good one I remember appeared, I believe, at the first Belle Vue show, Man-
chester. She was a deaf bitch, but her origin I know nothing about. This was about
sixteen years since. The following year brought out the champion Tim, then shown by old
Bill Pearson, and which some time afterwards came into my possession, and from which dog I
produced the strain that I have been so very successful with since I first brought them out.
I consider Tim was not only the first champion specimen, but the best Terrier we ever had,
and was really the foundation of good Terriers. As regards the points of Terriers I think that
by the conversations we have had together I have told you all I know. I may say that among
others Tim was sire to Swindell's Gem, out of a bitch he picked up in Manchester, and which
showed in a marked manner a cross of the Snap-dog breed, and you remember all his
strain showed the same, more or less. He (Tim) was, as I have remarked, the best Terrier I
ever saw, and champion for years ; in fact, up to the time of his death, which occurred about
three years ago (1876)."

The breed being of so modern an origin, we can find little to add to its history that could
interest our readers. We will therefore proceed to offer a few hints on the breeding of this
variety, which have been picked up in conversation with various admirers of the breed. It being
so universally acknowledged that many strains show traces of Italian Greyhound or Snap
(rabbit-coursing dog) blood, every endeavour should be taken to eradicate the evil. Not only
does the dog suffer as a Terrier in its appearance, but the peculiar action in the fore-feet, which
Italian Greyhounds show so conspicuously, is very much against it. These specimens we should
mate with as light (i.e., lightly built) a Bull-terrier as we could procure, and having destroyed
the dog puppies, reserve the bitches for subsequent re-crossing with the best white English
stud dog we could procure. In attempting this process, it should be borne in mind that there is
very small probability of a breeder obtaining his desire in the first cross, and more probably
the third or fourth will get him what he wants. Considerable care must therefore be taken
in the next cross ; and though much must depend upon circumstances, we would suggest
resorting to the services of a sire of the same strain as the father of the latter puppies. Any
dogs saved from this litter may, of course, be used to bitches of remote blood, when there will
usually be plenty of offspring left to found and perpetuate a strain of well-bred white English
Terriers.

In appearance this dog should closely resemble the Black-and-tan, so a full description
of its structural development is unnecessary. Its colour is an intensely brilliant white, and
its eyes very black and sparkling the oblique shape being preferred. Spots of red, tan, or
brindle, frequently appear on puppies, sometimes weeks after they are born. These chiefly
show behind the ears or on the neck, and are, of course, a disfigurement to a dog which should
be pure white. These are occasionally cut out when the puppies are young, and a wide collar
is often used, when this breed is shown, to conceal these blemishes. Many good specimens, too,
are deaf, and though some judges profess not to object to this infirmity, we consider it very
much against a dog's chance of success, as a deaf dog is a sorry companion either at home or
abroad. It is believed that nearly all purely white animals are deaf, and if so the present
variety is only redeemed from the infirmity by the nose, or a few scattered, and so invisible,
hairs.

The dog we have selected for illustration is Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Silvio. He was first
shown by his breeder, Mr. James Roocroft, at Bath in 1877. We were judge upon that occasion,
and gave him first in one of the best classes we ever saw. Subsequently we purchased him



POINTS OF WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS. 1 1 5

from Mr. Roocroft, and afterwards re-sold him to Mr. Benjamin. He is certainly, if well shown,
the best specimen we ever saw, but absence of condition has often caused him a defeat. He
was born in 1876, and is by Joe out of Sylph by Viper, and has won first Bath, Agricultural
Hall, Darlington, and Alexandra Palace, 1877 ; first VVolverhampton, 1878. His measurements
ar e_Nose to stop, 3 inches ; stop to occiput, 4^ inches ; length of back, 1 5 inches ; girth of
muzzle, 7 inches; girth of skull, 12 inches; girth of brisket, 19 inches; girth round shoulders,
19! inches ; girth of loin, 16 inches ; girth of forearm, 3! inches ; girth of pastern, 3 inches ;
height at shoulders, 18 inches; height at loin, i8i ; weight, 19 Ibs.



SCALE FOR JUDGING WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS.



Head, including jaws, nose, ears, and eyes

Legs

Feet

Body

Colour

General appearance

Action



Total ...



Value.
10

s

5

5

10
10

5

50

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